Re-evaluate Individual Functions in Firefox Developer Tools' Scratchpad

November 22nd, 2013

My friend and co-worker Panos Astithas was in town the other day, and so we decided to hack together on some features that we wouldn't normally be working on in our regular day-to-day. Among them was a new evaluation feature for the Firefox Developer Tools' Scratchpad that allows you to evaluate individual top level functions at a time. The command is bound to the Cmd + E keyboard shortcut and was inspired by SLIME's slime-compile-defun (C-c C-c) command.

Being able to re-evaluate individual functions at a time enables faster prototyping. The previous workflow whenever you wanted to edit functions was to refresh the app, repeat interactions that put the app back into the previous state, and then finally observe how your changes affected the app. In many cases, you can avoid this lengthy process by editing your code in the Scratchpad and using Cmd + E to re-evaluate individual functions. Re-evaluating individual functions doesn't refresh the app, and lets it maintain its existing state. No refreshing or repeated interactions required.

When you re-evaluate a function with Cmd + E, we flash the function's source text briefly to provide some visual feedback.

This feature is available in Firefox 28, which is currently in the Nightly release channel.

Testing Source Maps

October 2nd, 2013

"How do I test the source maps my compiler/transpiler/build tool creates?"

I have seen this question come up a few times, and unfortunately, people usually don't find an answer, give up, and don't test their source maps. However, testing source maps isn't too hard if you are using Node.js and the mozilla/source-map library. If you aren't using Node.js and the mozilla/source-map library, you can still use the following techniques, but you will need to implement a source map consumer.

Your tool most likely has a function that generates both the JavaScript that will be executed by the browser's JavaScript engine/Node/whatever, and a source map. Something like this:

var result = compile(input, { url: inputUrl, sourceMap: true });
result.code;      // The JavaScript code
result.sourceMap; // The source map

It is easiest to base your tests around this function.

To test generated source maps:

  1. Create some test input to compile.

  2. Select some different bits of code in the test input and record their { url, line, column } locations. Generally, a "bit of code" should be a specific token, function invocation, etc.

  3. Compile and generate a source map for the test input.

  4. Create a SourceMapConsumer for the generated source map.

    var smc = new SourceMapConsumer(result.sourceMap);
    
  5. Inspect the compiled code and find the generated code that corresponds to the bits of code you selected in step (2). For each of the { line, column } locations in the compiled code, add an assertion to your test that smc.originalPositionFor(location) is equal to the expected location in your original source.

There is another approach, that is easier for compilers targeting JavaScript than for build tools, which can be used when you don't want to inspect the generated JavaScript at all.

  1. You can add a location debugging statement to your language that compiles to JavaScript code similar to:

    // SpiderMonkey (Firefox)
    (function (e) { console.log(e.lineNumber, e.columnNumber); }(new Error()));
    
    
    // In other engines, you need to parse the first frame from the error's
    // stack property yourself
    (function (e) { console.log(parseLocation(e.stack)); }(new Error()));
    
  2. Create test input which has one or more of these location debugging statements.

  3. Compile the test input and create a SourceMapConsumer for your generated source map.

  4. Run the compiled input and read its output.

  5. Assert that querying the SourceMapConsumer for the original location(s) of that output points to the expected location(s) in your original test input source.

For reference, here are some existing source map test suites from various projects (hopefully this post helps them expand their tests as well):

Destructuring Assignment in ECMAScript 6

August 15th, 2013

What is destructuring assignment?

Destructuring assignment allows you to assign the properties of an array or object to variables using syntax that looks similar to array or object literals. This syntax can be extremely terse, while still exhibiting more clarity than the traditional property access.

Without destructuring assignment, you might access the first three items in an array like this:

let first = someArray[0];
let second = someArray[1];
let third = someArray[2];

With destructuring assignment, the equivalent code becomes more concise and read-able:

let [first, second, third] = someArray;

TC39 (the governing committee of ECMAScript) has already reached consensus on destructuring assignment and it is part of the draft ES6 specification. Effectively what this means is that it is now up to the people writing JavaScript engines to start implementing it; SpiderMonkey (Firefox's JS engine) already has support for much of it. Track SpiderMonkey's destructuring (and general ES6) support in this bugzilla ticket.

Destructuring Arrays

We already saw one example of destructuring assignment on an array above. The general form of the syntax is:

[ variable1, variable2, ..., variableN ] = array;

This will just assign variable1 through variableN to the corresponding item in the array. If you want to declare your variables at the same time, you can add a var, let, or const in front of the assignment:

var [ variable1, variable2, ..., variableN ] = array;
let [ variable1, variable2, ..., variableN ] = array;
const [ variable1, variable2, ..., variableN ] = array;

Although variable is a misnomer since you can nest patterns as deep as you would like:

var [foo, [[bar], baz]] = [1, [[2], 3]];
console.log(foo);
// 1
console.log(bar);
// 2
console.log(baz);
// 3

Furthermore, you can skip over items in the array being destructured:

var [,,third] = ["foo", "bar", "baz"];
console.log(third);
// "baz"

And you can capture all trailing items in an array with a "rest" pattern:

var [head, ...tail] = [1, 2, 3, 4];
console.log(tail);
// [2, 3, 4]

When you access items in the array that are out of bounds or don't exist, you get the same result you would by indexing: undefined.

console.log([][0]);
// undefined

var [missing] = [];
console.log(missing);
// undefined

Destructuring Objects

Destructuring on objects lets you bind variables to different properties of an object. You specify the property being bound, followed by the variable you are binding its value to.

var robotA = { name: "Bender" };
var robotB = { name: "Flexo" };

var { name: nameA } = robotA;
var { name: nameB } = robotB;

console.log(nameA);
// "Bender"
console.log(nameB);
// "Flexo"

There is a helpful syntactical shortcut for when the property and variable names are the same:

var { foo, bar } = { foo: "lorem", bar: "ipsum" };
console.log(foo);
// "lorem"
console.log(bar);
// "ipsum"

And just like destructuring on arrays, you can nest and combine further destructuring:

var complicatedObj = {
  arrayProp: [
    "Zapp",
    { second: "Brannigan" }
  ]
};

var { arrayProp: [first, { second }] } = complicatedObj;

console.log(first);
// "Zapp"
console.log(second);
// "Brannigan"

When you destructure on properties that are not defined, you get undefined:

var { missing } = {};
console.log(missing);
// undefined

One potential gotcha you should be aware of is when you are using destructuring on an object to assign variables, but not to declare them (when there is no let, const, or var):

{ blowUp } = { blowUp: 10 };
// Syntax error

This happens because the engine attempts to parse the expression as a block statement (for example, { console } is a valid block statement). The solution is to either wrap the pattern or the whole expression in parenthesis:

({ safe }) = {};
({ andSound } = {});
// No errors

Destructuring Values that are not an Object or Array

When you try to use destructuring on null or undefined, you get a type error:

var [blowUp] = null;
// TypeError: null has no properties

However, you can destructure on other primitive types such as booleans, numbers, and strings, and get undefined:

var [wtf] = NaN;
console.log(wtf);
// undefined

This may come unexpected, but upon further examination it turns out to be simple. When a value is being destructured, it is first converted to an object using the abstract operation ToObject. Most types can be converted to an object, but null and undefined may not be.

Default Values

You can also provide default values for when the property you are destructuring is not defined:

var [missing = true] = [];
console.log(missing);
// true

var { x = 3 } = {};
console.log(x);
// 3

Practical Applications of Destructuring

Function Parameter Definitions

As developers, we can often expose nicer APIs by accepting a single object with multiple properties as a parameter instead of forcing our API consumers to remember the order of many individual parameters. We can use destructuring to avoid repeating this single parameter object whenever we want to reference one of its properties:

function removeBreakpoint({ url, line, column }) {
  // ...
}

This is a real world snippet of code from Firefox's debugger. We use this all over the place, it is crazy nice.

Configuration Object Parameters

Expanding on the previous example, we can also give default values to the properties of the objects we are destructuring. This is particularly helpful when we have an object that is meant to provide configuration and many of the object's properties already have sensible defaults. For example, jQuery's ajax function takes a configuration object as its second parameter, and could be re-written like this:

jQuery.ajax = function (url, {
  async = true,
  beforeSend = function () {},
  cache = true,
  complete = function () {},
  crossDomain = false,
  global = true,
  // ... more config
}) {
  // ... do stuff
};

This avoids repeating var foo = config.foo || 'default foo'; for each property of the configuration object.

With the ES6 Iteration Protocol

ECMAScript 6 also defines an iteration protocol somewhat similar to the one in Python. When you iterate over Maps (an ES6 addition to the standard library), you get a series of [key, value] pairs. We can destructure this pair to get easy access to both the key and the value:

var map = new Map();
map.set(window, "the global");
map.set(document, "the document");

for (let [key, value] of map) {
  console.log(key + " is " + value);
}
// "[object Window] is the global"
// "[object HTMLDocument] is the document"

Iterate over only the keys:

for (let [key] of map) {
  // ...
}

Or iterate over only the values:

for (let [,value] of map) {
  // ...
}

Multiple Return Values

I've written about this once before. Returning multiple values from a function is a lot more practical when you can destructure the result:

function returnMultipleValues() {
  return [1, 2];
}
var [foo, bar] = returnMultipleValues();

Alternatively, you can use an object as the container and name the returned values:

function returnMultipleValues() {
  return {
    foo: 1,
    bar: 2
  };
}
var { foo, bar } = returnMultipleValues();

These both end up much better than holding onto the temporary container:

function returnMultipleValues() {
  return {
    foo: 1,
    bar: 2
  };
}
var temp = returnMultipleValues();
var foo = temp.foo;
var bar = temp.bar;

Importing a Subset of a Module

When importing some module X into your own module Y, it is fairly common that module X exports more functions than you are using. With destructuring, you can be explicit about which parts of module X are being used in module Y:

const { SourceMapConsumer, SourceNode } = require("source-map");

My Talk from Front Trends 2013

June 21st, 2013

At the end of April, I flew to Warsaw, Poland to give a talk about source maps at Front Trends 2013. It is basically the presentation-version of my blog post on the hacks.mozilla.org blog. The Front Trends folks just released the recording of the presentation:

"Compiling to JavaScript, and Debugging with Source Maps" on Mozilla Hacks

May 22nd, 2013

I wrote a tutorial titled Compiling to JavaScript, and Debugging with Source Maps for the Mozilla Hacks blog:

This is a tutorial on how to write a compiler which generates JavaScript as its target language, and maintains line and column meta-data in source maps for debugging. Storing line and column coordinates in a source map allows the end-user of the compiler to debug the source code that they wrote, rather than the ugly, generated JavaScript they are not familiar with.

Go read it!

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Recent Entries

Come work with me on Firefox Developer Tools on July 8th, 2014

Debugging Web Performance with Firefox DevTools - Velocity 2014 on June 26th, 2014

Beyond Source Maps on March 12th, 2014

Memory Tooling in Firefox Developer Tools in 2014 on March 4th, 2014

Hiding Implementation Details with ECMAScript 6 WeakMaps on January 13th, 2014

Re-evaluate Individual Functions in Firefox Developer Tools' Scratchpad on November 22nd, 2013

Testing Source Maps on October 2nd, 2013

Destructuring Assignment in ECMAScript 6 on August 15th, 2013

My Talk from Front Trends 2013 on June 21st, 2013

"Compiling to JavaScript, and Debugging with Source Maps" on Mozilla Hacks on May 22nd, 2013

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